Risk factors of Heart Disease Peripheral arterial disease
What is peripheral vascular disease?
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels of both arteries and veins positioned outer surface of the heart and brain. Though there are various causes of peripheral vascular disease, doctors generally use the phrase peripheral vascular disease to refer to peripheral artery disease, a state that extends while the arteries that provide blood to the interior organs, arms, and legs become totally or partly blocked as an outcome of atherosclerosis.
What is atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is a regular process whereby solid cholesterol materials (plaques) are placed in the walls of the arteries. Cholesterol plaques cause become firm of the artery walls and thinning of the internal canal (lumen) of the artery. The atherosclerosis method begins early in life (in some people). While atherosclerosis is soft and the arteries are not significantly narrowed, atherosclerosis causes no indications. Thus many adults naturally are ignorant that their arteries are slowly mounting up cholesterol plaques. But when atherosclerosis develops into higher with aging, it can cause dangerous contraction of the arteries ensuing in tissue ischemia (lack of oxygen and blood).
How does atherosclerosis cause disease?
In two ways atherosclerosis can causes disease;
- atherosclerosis can border the capacity of the narrowed arteries to raise relief of blood and oxygen to tissues through periods of increased oxygen demand such as at some stage in physical exertion, or
- whole obstacle of an artery by a thrombus or embolus (forms of blood clots) resultant in tissue necrosis (death of tissue).
Exertional angina and intermittent claudication are two best examples of inadequate liberation of blood and oxygen to assemble tissue demand; also strokes and heart attacks are illustrations of death of tissue caused by entire artery barrier by blood clots.
Complications of peripheral artery disease
- Blood clots or emboli that building block off little arteries
- Coronary artery disease
- Open sores (ischemic ulcers) on the lower legs
- Tissue death (gangrene)
Who is at risk for peripheral artery disease?
Peripheral artery disease is somewhat more familiar in men than in women and nearly all occurs in older persons (over the age of 50). The identified risk factors for peripheral artery disease are those that influence to the growth of atherosclerosis. Risk factors for peripheral artery disease consist of:
- High blood levels of the terrible LDL cholesterol and triglycerides
- Low blood points of the good HDL cholesterol
- Cigarette smoking
- Diabetes mellitus (Type I and Type II diabetes)
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- A family history of atherosclerotic disease
- constant renal failure
- Overweight or obesity
- Physical indolence
Symptoms and signs of peripheral artery disease?
Symptoms and signs of peripheral artery disease include:
- Deadness of the extremities
- Weakness and wither (diminished size and strength) of the calf muscle
- A sensation of chilliness in the legs or feet
- varies in color of the feet; feet turn light when they are high, and turn darkish red in dependent position
- Hair loss over the dorsum of the bottom and clot of the toenails
- Hurting ulcers and gangrene in tissue where there is serious ischemia; normally in the toes.
What are the treatments for peripheral artery disease?
- Reduce the pain of irregular claudication.
- Get better exercise acceptance by rising the walking distance previous to the onset of claudication.
- Avoid dangerous artery occlusion that can direct to foot ulcers, gangrene, and elimination.
- Prevent strokes and heart attacks.
Treatments of peripheral artery disease contain lifestyle actions, managed exercises, medications, angioplasty, and surgery.