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   List of abbreviations


 AAA - Abdominal aortic aneurysm
 ABG - Arterial blood gases
 ABMT - Autologous bone marrow transplantation
 ABVD doxorubicin bleomycin vinblastine dacarbazine a.c. before food, from Latin, ante cibum
 ACE - Angiotensin converting enzyme
 ACEI - Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
 ACL - Anterior cruciate ligament
 ACTH - Adrenocorticoid hormone
 ADA - Adenosine deaminase
 ADD - Attention Deficit Disorder
 ADH - Antidiuretic hormone
 ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
 AF - atrial fibrillation
 AFO - ankle-foot orthosis
 AFP - Alpha-fetoprotein
 AHF - Antihemophilic factor
 AHG - Antihemophilic globulin
 AI - Artificial insemination
 AICD - Automatic implanted cardiac defibrillator
 AID - Artificial insemination by donor
 AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
 AIH - artificial insemination by husband
 ALG - Antilymphocytic globulin
 ALL - Acute lymphocytic leukemia
 ALP - Alkaline phosphatase
 ALPS - Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
 ALS - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
 ALS - Advanced Life Support
 ALT - Alanine transferase
 AMA - Anti-mitochondrial Antibodies
 AMC - Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
 AML - Acute myelocytic leukemia
 AMP - Adenosine monophosphate
 AMS - Acute mountain sickness
 AMS - atypical measles syndrome
 ANA - Anti-nuclear antibody
 ANCA - Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
 ANF - Atrial natriuretic factor
 ANP - Atrial natriuretic peptide
 ANUG - Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
 AP - Alkaline phosphatase
 APECED - autoimmune polyendocrinopathy
 APGAR - American Pediatric Gross Assessment Record (a backronym)
 APLS - antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
 APSAC - Anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex
 APS - autoimmune polyglandular syndrome
 APTT - Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
 ARC - AIDS related complex
 ARDS - Acute respiratory distress syndrome
 ART - antiretroviral therapy
 ARM - Artificial rupture of membranes
 ASA - Acetylsalicylic acid - commonly known as aspirin
 AS - Aortic stenosis
 ASCAD - arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease
 ASD - Atrial septal defect
 ASGUS - Atypical squamous glandular cells of undetermined significance
 ASCUS - Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
 ASL - American sign language
 ASO - Antistreptolysin O
 AST - Asparagine Transferase
 ATCC - American Type Culture Collection
 ATG - Antithymic globulin
 AT-III - Antithrombin III
 ATP - acute thrombocytopenic purpura
 ATP - adenosine triphosphate
 AVM - Arteriovenous malformation
 AVR - Aortic valve replacement
 AZT - azidothymidine


 BAL - Bronchoalveolar lavage
 BAL - British anti-Lewisite
 BAO - Basic acid output)
 BCG - Bacille Calmette-Guerin (a tuberculosis vaccination) b.d. Twice daily, from Latin, bis die
 BE - Base excess
 BK - Bacterium Koch
 BMC - Bone mass content
 BMD - Bone mass density
 BMI - Body mass index
 BMR - Basal metabolic rate
 BMT - Bone marrow transplantation
 BNF - British National Formulary
 BNP - Brain natriuretic peptide
 BP - Blood pressure
 BP - Bipolar disorder
 BPD - Bi-Parietal Diameter
 BPD - Borderline personality disorder
 BPH - Benign prostatic hyperplasia
 BPM - Beats per minute
 BSE - Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
 BSE - Breast Self-Examination
 BSP - Bromsulphthalein
 BUN - Blood urea nitrogen


 CABG - Coronary arterial bypass graft
 CAMP - cyclic adenosine monophosphate
 Ca - Carcinoma
 Ca - Calcium
 CAH - Chronic Active Hepatitis
 CAH - Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
 CAT - computed axial tomography
 CAPD - Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
 CCF - Congestive Cardiac Failure
 CCK - Cholecystokinin
 CEA - Carcinoembryonic antigen
CF - Cystic fibrosis
 CGMP - Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
 CHE - Cholinesterase
 CHF - Congestive heart failure
 CI - Confidence interval
 CJD - Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
 CK - Creatine kinase
 CLL - Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
 CML - Chronic myelocytic leukemia
 CMML - Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
 CMV - Cytomegalovirus
 COAD - Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease
 COLD - Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
 COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
 CO - Cardiac output
 CO - Carbon monoxide
 COX-1 - Cyclooxygenase 1
 COX-2 - Cyclooxygenase 2
 CPAP - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
 CPK - Creatine Phosphokinase
 CPR - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
 CREST - Calcinosis Raynaud Esophagus Sclerosis Teleangiectasiae
 CRF - Chronic renal failure
 CRF - Corticotropin Releasing Factor
 CRH - Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
 CRI - Chronic Renal Insufficiency
 CRP - C-reactive protein
 CR - Complete Remission
 CS - Caesarean Section
 CSA - Cyclosporin A
 CSF - Cerebrospinal fluid
 CT - computed axial tomography
 CVA - Cerebrovascular Accident
 CVP - Central Venous Pressure
 CVID - Common Variable Immunodeficiency


 DBP - Diastolic blood pressure
 DCM - Dilated cardiomyopathy
 DDD - Daily Defined Doses
 DHEA-S - Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate
 DHE - Dihydoergotamine
 DIC - Disseminated intravacular coagulation
 DPT - Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus
 DiPerTe - Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus
 DiTe - Diphtheria Tetanus
 DM - Diabetes Mellitus
 DNA - Desoxyribonucleic acid
 DNR - Do Not Resuscitate
 DOA - Dead on arrival
 DTP - Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis
 DT - Diphtheria Tetanus
 DVT - Deep vein thrombosis
 DEXA - Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry


 EACA - Epsilon-aminocaproic acid
 EBM - Evidence-based medicine
 ECG - Electrocardiogram
 EDRF - Endothelium-derived relaxing factor
 EEG - Electroencepholgram
 EKG - Electrocardiogram
 ECPW - endoskopowa cholangiopankreatografia wsteczna
 E - Erythrocytes
 EF - Ejection Fraction
 EGF - Epidermal Growth Factor
 EKG - Electrocardiogram
 EMLSCS - Emergency Lower Segment Caesarian Section
 ELLSCS - Elective Lower Segment Caesarian Section
 ELISA - Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
 EMC - Encephalomyocarditis
 EMF - Endomyocardial fibrosis
 EMG - Electromyography
 ENT - Ear Nose and Throat. (Otolaryngology)
 EPH - Edema Proteinuria Hypertension
 EPO - Erythropoietin
 ERCP - Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
 ESL - Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (also ESWL) - see lithotriptor
 ESR - Erythocyte sedimentation rate
 ESWL - Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (also ESL) - see lithotriptor
 ET - Endothelin
 ETOH - ethanol or ethyl alcohol
 EUS - Endoscopic Ultrasonography


 FACC - Fellow of the American College of Cardiology [1]
 FDP - Fibrinogen Degradation Products
 FEV1 - Forced Expiratory Volume 1-second
 Fe - Iron
 FFA - Free fatty acids
 FFP - Fresh frozen plasma
 FHR - Fetal heart rate
 FHT - Fetal heart tones
 FPG - Fasting plasma glucose
 FSE - Fetal Scalp Electrode
 FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone
 FTA-ABS - Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption
 FTA - Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody


 G6PD - Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase
 GABA - gamma-aminobutyric acid
 GCS - Glasgow Coma Scale
 GDLH - Glutamate dehydrogenase
 GERD - Gastro-esophageal reflux disease
 GFR - Glomerular filtrate rate
 GTP - Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
 GH - Growth hormone
 GHRF - Growth hormone releasing factor
 GITS - Gastrointestinal therapeutic system
 GIFT - Gamete intrafallopian transfer
 GORD - Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
 GOT - glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase
 GPT - glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
 GvH - Graft-versus-host
 GvHD - Graft-versus-host disease


 HA - Hypertonia arterialis
 HAV - Hepatitis A virus
 HBG - Hemoglobin
 HB - Hemoglobin
 HBV - Hepatitis B virus
 HCG - Human chorionic gonadotropin
 HCM - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
 HCT - Hematocrit
 HCT - Hydrochlorothiazide
 HCV - Hepatitis C virus
 HDL - High density lipoprotein
 HDL-C - High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
 HDV - Hepatitis D virus
 HEV - Hepatitis E virus
 HEMS - Helicopter Emergency Medical Service
 HGB - Hemoglobin
 Hib - Haemophilus influenzae B
 HIV - Human immunodeficiency virus
 HL - Hepatic lipase
 HLA - Human leukocyte antigens
 HOCM - Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
 HR - Heart rate
 HRT - Hormone replacement therapy
 HSG - Hysterosalpingogram
 HSV - Herpes simplex virus
 HTLV - Human T-lymphotropic virus
 HUS - Hemolytic uremic syndrome


 IABP - Intra-aortic balloon pumping
 ICD-10 - International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision
 ICD - Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
 ICU - Intensive care unit
 IDC - Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
 IDDM - Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
 IDL - Intermediate density lipoprotein
 IFG - Impaired fasting glucose
 Ig - Immunoglobulin
 INF - Interferon
 INR - International normalized ratio
 IPPV Intermittent positive pressure ventilation
 IQ - Intelligence Quotient
 ISA - Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity
 ISDN - Isosorbide dinitrate
 ISH - Isolated systolic hypertension
 ITP - Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
 IUCD - intrauterine contraceptive device
 IUD - intrauterine device
 IUD - intrauterine Death
 IU - International units
 IVF - In vitro fertilization
 IUI - Intrauterine insemination
 IVP - Intravenous pyelogram


 K - Potassium (in German, Kalium)



 LAD - Left artery descendens
 LAS - Lymphadenopathy syndrome
 LBBB - Left bundle branch block
 LCM - Lymphocytic meningitis
 LDH - Lactate dehydrogenase
 LDL - Low density lipoprotein
 LDL-C - Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
 L-DOPA - DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine
 LES - Lower esophageal sphincter
 LES - Lupus erythematosus systemicus
 LE - Lupus erythematosus (in German Lupus erythematodes)
 leu - Leukocytes
 LGL - Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome
 LGM - Lymphogranulomatosis maligna
 L - Leukocytes
 LM - Left Main
 Lp - Lipoprotein
 LPL - Lipoprotein lipase
 LVEDP - Left ventricular end diastolic pressure
 LVEF - Left ventricular Ejection Fraction
 LVF - Left ventricular failure
 LVH - Left ventricular hypertrophy
 LV - Left ventricle
 LVOT - Left Ventricular Outflow Track
 Ly - Lymphocytes


 MAO-I - Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
 MAS - Morgani-Adams-Stokes
 MCHC - Mean cell hemoglobin concentration
 MCH - Mean cell hemoglobin
 MCV - Mean cell volume
 MDS - Myelodysplastic syndrome
 Mg - Magnesium
 MI - Myocardial infarction
 MIC - Morbus Ischaemicus Cordis
 MIC - minimal Inhibitory Concentration
 MLA - Myelosis Leucemica Acuta
 MM - Myeloma multiplex
 MODY - Maturity Onset Diabetes in Youth
 Mo - Monocytes
 MPV - Mean Platelet Volume
 MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 MR - Modified Release
 MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
 MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
 MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
 MS - Multiple sclerosis
 TX - Methotrexate
 MVPS - Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome
 MVP - Mitral Valve Prolapse


 Na - Sodium (in German Natrium)
 Ne - Neutrophil granulocytes
 Neo - Neoplasm
 NHL - Non Hodgkin Lymphoma
 NIDDM - Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
 NK - Natural killer cells
 NMR - Nuclear magnetic resonance
 NOS - Nitric oxide synthase
 NO - Nitric oxide
 Npl - Neoplasm
 n.s. - not significant
 NSAID - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
 NSE - Neurospecific enolase
 NTG - Nitroglycerin
 NYHA - New York Heart Association


 OA - osteoarthritis
 OB-GYN - Obstetrics and gynecology
 O.D. - right eye (Latin oculus dexter)
 O.D. - overdose
 OGTT - Oral glucose tolerance test
 O.S. - left eye (Latin oculus sinister)


 P - Phosphorus
 p.c. - After food, from Latin, post cibum
 PAF - Platelet activating factor
 PAI-1 - Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
 PAO - Peak Acid Output
 PAP - Papanicolaou stain
 PA - posterior-anterior
 PA - Pulmonary artery
 PAT - Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
 PCOS - Polycystic ovarian syndrome
 PCP - Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
 PCR - Polymerase chain reaction
 PDA - Patent ductus arteriosus
 PDE - Phosphodiesterase
 PDT - Photodynamic Therapy
 PEEP - Positive end expiratory pressure
 PEFR - Peak expiratory flow rate
 PEF - Peak expiratory flow
 PET - Positron-emission tomography
 PFO - Patent foramen ovale
 PID - Pelvic inflammatory disease
 PKA - Protein kinase A
 PKU - Phenylketonuria
 PLT - platelets
 PMR - Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularisation
 POX - Peroxidase
 PPRS - Pharmaceutical Price Regulatory Scheme
 PRA - Plasma renin activity
 PRIND - Prolonged Reversible Ischemic Neurologic Deficit
 prn - as necessary (from Latin pro re nata)
 PSA - Prostatic specific antigen
 PSP - Phenylsulphtalein
 PROM - Premature Rupture of Membranes
 PTA - Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty
 PTCA - Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
 PT - Prothrombin time
 PTH - Parathyroid hormone
 PTT - Partial thromboplastin time
 PUVA - Psoralen UV A
 PVR - Pulmonary vascular resistance
 PWP - Pulmonary Wedge Pressure


 q.d.s. - Four times daily, from Latin, quater die sumendus
 q.h.s. - every night before bed
 q.q.h. - Every four hours, from Latin, quarta quaque hora


 RA - Refractory anaemia
 RBBB - Right bundle branch block
 RBC - Red blood cells
 RCA - Right coronary artery
 RCT - Randomized controlled trial
 REM - Rapid eye movement
 RF - Rheumatic factor
 Rh - Rhesus factor
 RIA - Radioimmune assay
 RIBA - Radioimmunoblotting assay
 RIND - Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit
 RNA - Ribonucleic acid
 RNV - Radionuclear Ventriculography
 RSV - Respiratory Syncytial Virus
 RV - Residual volume
 RV - Right ventricle


 SARS - Severe acute respiratory syndrome
 SBP - Systolic blood pressure, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
 SCC - Squamous cell carciona
 SCID - Severe combined immunodeficiency
 s.c - sub cutis
 SD - Standard deviation
 SHBG - Sex Hormone Binding Globuline
 SIADH - Syndrome of Inadequate ADH
 SID - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
 SIMV - Synchronized Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation
 SK - Streptokinase
 SLE - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
 SM - latin Sclerosis multiplex - Multiple sclerosis
 SNP - Sodium Nitroprusside
 SPET - Single photon emission tomography
 SR - Slow Release
 SROM - Spontaneous rupture of membranes
 SSSS - Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
 SSS - Sick Sinus Syndrome
 STD - Sexually transmitted disease
 STI - Sexually transmitted infection
 STH - Somatotropic hormone
 SVD - Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
 SVR - Systemic vascular resistance
 SVT - Supraventricular tachycardia
 SXA - Single energy X-ray absorptiometer


 TBC - tuberculosis
 TB - tuberculosis
 TBI - Total body irradiation
 t.d.s. - Three times a day, from Latin, ter die sumendus
 TEE - Transesophageal echocardiogram
 TENS - Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulaton
 TGA - Transposition of the great arteries
 TG - Triglycerides
 TIA - Transient ischemic attack
 TIBC - Total iron binding capacity
 TLC - Total lung capacity
 TNF - Tumor necrosis factor
 TNM - Tumor-Nodes-Metastases
 TOE - Transoesophageal echocardiogram
 TPA - Tissue plasminogen activator
 TRH - Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
 TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
 TS - Tricuspid stenosis
 TT - thrombin time
 TTE - Transthoracic echocardiogram
 TTP - Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
 TTS - Transdermal therapeutic system
 Tu - Tumor
 TUR - Transurethral resection


 UBT - Urea Breath Test
 USG - Ultrasonography
 USR - Unheated Serum Reagin
 UVAL - Ultraviolet Argon Laser
 USS - Ultrasound scan


 VAD - vincristine adriblastine dexamethasone
 VAMP - vincristine adriblastine methylprednisone
 VC - Vital capacity
 V-BAC - Vaginal Birth After Caesarian
 VD - Vaginal Delivery
 VDRL - Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory
 VEB - Vetricular ectopic beat
 VF - Ventricular fibrillation
 VIP - Vasoactive intestinal peptide
 VLDL - Very low density lipoprotein
 VMA - Vanillylmandelic acid
 VSD - Ventricular septal defect
 VT - Ventricular tachycardia


 WBC - White blood cells
 WPW - Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome


 ZIFT - Zygote intrafallopian transfer

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