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Amelogenin is a gene-specific, low-molecular-weight protein found in tooth enamel. Although less than 5% of enamel consists of protein, amelogenins comprise 90% of all enamel protein. Although not completely understood, the function of amelogenins is believed to be in organizing enamel rods during tooth development.

Other significant proteins in enamel are ameloblastins, enamelins, and tuftelins.