Bankokerend, Dactylolysis spontanea, and Sukhapakla
Incisions across the groove turned out to be ineffective. Excision of the groove followed by z-plasty could relieve pain and avoid autoamputation in Grade I and Grade II lesions. Grade III lesions are treated with disarticulating the metatarsophalangeal joint. This also relieves pain, and all patients have a useful and steady foot.
Ainhum is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe frequently followed by bilateral spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease occurs predominantly in black Africans and their descendants. The exact etiology is still unclear.