Causative organisms contain anaerobes such as Bacteroides and Fusobacterium as well as spirochetes (Borrelia and Treponema spp.). The condition is cause by an overpopulation of established oral bacteria due to a number of interacting factors such as poor cleanliness, poor diet, smoking, stress, lifestyle and other infections. This condition is now found more usually in the younger generation.
Treatment is by the simple reduction of the bacteria through improved oral cleaning and salt water or hydrogen peroxide-based rinses. Chlorhexidine or metronidazole can also be used in addition. Penicillin is also indicated at 250 mg every 6 to 8 hours. A regular visit to the hygienist at a dental practice will aid healing, but without preventing the initial cause of the condition, repeated infection will occur.
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a polymicrobial disease of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue. Symptoms consist of fever and halitosis.