Actinomycosis is mainly caused by any numerous members of the bacterial genus Actinomyces. These bacteria are generally anaerobes.
Actinomyces bacteria are generally responsive to penicillin, which is frequently used to treat actinomycosis. If the person is allergic to penicillin, then doxycyclin is used. If the person is allergic to doxycyclin, then penicillin is used.
Actinomycosis is a uncommon infectious bacterial disease of humans generally caused by Actinomyces israelii, A. gerencseriae and Propionibacterium propionicus, though the circumstance is likely to be polymicrobial. Actinomycosis occurs rather regularly in cattle as a disease called lumpy jaw. This name refers to the large abscesses that grow on the head and neck of the infected animal. It can also affect humans, swine, horses, and dogs, rarely wild animals and sheep.